Mechanisms of maintaining accuracy of protein biosynthesis on the ribosome

Maleš, Matilda (2010) Mechanisms of maintaining accuracy of protein biosynthesis on the ribosome. Bachelor's thesis, Faculty of Science > Department of Biology.

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Abstract

Constant flow of genetic information makes life possible. Protein biosynthesis based on information stored in DNA molecule is enabled by replication and transcription of DNA and translation of mRNA. Accuracy and speed of those processes are crucial for maintaining organism functionality. During translation, incorrect amino acids can be incorporated in a polypeptide chain. There are several mechanisms on the ribosome which prevent that incorporation frequency of incorrect amino acids rises above 1×10-3. Based on mRNA codon and tRNA anticodon pairing we can distinguish three types of aminoacylated tRNAs (aa-tRNA): cognate, near-cognate and non-cognate. Anticodon of cognate aa-tRNA is completely complementary with the codon of mRNA. Aa-tRNA is bound to the ribosome in the form of ternary complex together with the elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) and GTP. Ribosome selects cognate aa-tRNA via mechanisms of kinetic proofreading and induced fit. Complementarity between codon and anticodon induces a conformational change that changes the orientation of active sites on the ribosome, required for reactions of GTP hydrolysis and accomodation of aa-tRNA in A site. Those conformational changes occur in the decoding center of small ribosomal subunit and conformational signal is transmitted to the large subunit which is involved in GTP hydrolysis and accomodation. It has been shown that communication between small and large ribosomal subunit is possible because of formation of intersubunit bridges. They are formed after small subunit closure, caused by cognate supstrate binding. Because of the GTPase activity of EF-Tu, process of cognate aa-tRNA selection has been separated in two stages: initial selection and kinetic proofreading. They enable ribosme to reject near-cognate and non-cognate aa-tRNA several times, and in that way they increase the accuracy of protein biosynthesis on the ribosome.

Item Type: Thesis (Bachelor's thesis)
Supervisor: Gruić Sovulj, Ita
Date: 2010
Number of Pages: 18
Subjects: NATURAL SCIENCES > Biology
Divisions: Faculty of Science > Department of Biology
Depositing User: Silvana Šehić
Date Deposited: 06 Oct 2014 08:35
Last Modified: 16 Feb 2016 13:57
URI: http://digre.pmf.unizg.hr/id/eprint/2921

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