Fungi from order Pucciniales – morphology, systematics, ecology and pathogenicity

Radman, Jelena (2011) Fungi from order Pucciniales – morphology, systematics, ecology and pathogenicity. Bachelor's thesis, Faculty of Science > Department of Biology.

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Abstract

The order Pucciniales, in the older nomenclature Uredinales, is the most numerous order of phytopathogenic fungi. Fungi of this order, also known as rust fungi, belong to division Basidiomycota, class Puciniomycetes which has 14 families, 166 genera and even 7789 so far known species (Kirk et al., 2010). All rusts are obligately biotrophic organisms which parasite on plants. Rusts don't create a fertile body. Their life cycle is one of the most complicated in the living world, and includes two to five stages that develop in one host or to two phylogenetically distant hosts. Each stage represented a special type of slow and fructification bodies which produce the spores. The stages in the life of rust are pycnium, aecium, uredinium, telium and basidium. Rusts which develop all five stages are called macrocyclic rust, those who lack uredinium called demicyclic. Species that are missing uredinium and aecium are called microcyclic species. Species that are parasites on the two hosts to complete its life cycle are called heteroecious species, and those who need only one host species autoecious. If a species parasitic on two hosts, one of them is the primary host and fungus on it develops uredinium, telium and basidium, and the other is a secondary host and the fungus develops it basidium and aecium. Rusts were named to the uredinium which produces red, yellow, brown or orange uredospore. These are propagation spores spread by wind over long distances. Germination of spores on the appropriate host plant resulting in formation haustorium, structures by which a parasitic fungus draws nutrients from its host cell. Symptoms of plant species, a kind of rust, such as wheat black rust (Puccinia graminis), often causing great economic damage, in this case, the grain yields. However, there are very interesting, even decorative effects of rust fungi on host plants. Numerous fundamental questions about rust fungi remain to be answered, e.g. how they manage to infect and parasitize two unrelated hosts using different mechanisms on either or how rust fungi survive in situations where one of their two hosts is unavailable. Rusts are one of the best examples of coevolution with their hosts. It's fascinating how quickly new rust species or races spread to new habitats and then come to equilibrium with their host plants. The fact that many of them can now be cultivated on agar media in the laboratory does not alter their status as obligate biotrophs in nature.

Item Type: Thesis (Bachelor's thesis)
Supervisor: Miličević, Tihomir
Date: 2011
Number of Pages: 21
Subjects: NATURAL SCIENCES > Biology
Divisions: Faculty of Science > Department of Biology
Depositing User: Silvana Šehić
Date Deposited: 07 Oct 2014 11:15
Last Modified: 07 Oct 2014 11:15
URI: http://digre.pmf.unizg.hr/id/eprint/2969

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