Estrogen carcinogenesis in breast cancer

Žarak, Martina (2011) Estrogen carcinogenesis in breast cancer. Bachelor's thesis, Faculty of Science > Department of Biology.

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Abstract

Breast cancer is, along with lung and colon cancer, the most common type of cancer that affects mostly the female population in developed countries, especially menopausal women (over 50 years old). Breast cancer occurs when epithelial (carcinoma) or glandular (adenocarcinoma) breast cells change their properties and start to grow uncontrollably and destroy surrounding healthy tissue. There are several classification criteria: histopatology, grading, tumor stage, receptor status. Histopatologic classification includes non-invasive and invasive cancers. Around 70% of breast cancers have estrogen receptors (ER+) as well as progesterone receptor (PR+) and HER2/neu (HER2+) on the cell surface. Three groups of genetic, endocrine and environmental factors are associated with the development of breast cancer. In 80% of hereditary breast cancers the main cause are genetic changes in genes BRCA1 and BRCA2. The most important environmental factor is exposure to estrogen (earlier menarche and later menopause, low parity and late age at birth of first child). Numerous studies are dealing with estrogen carcinogenesis in breast cancer. There are two mechanisms of estrogen action proposed which probably act synergistically when promoting initiation and progression of breast cancer. Estrogen promotes cell proliferation in breast tissue which allows mutations and cancer development. Also, estrogen and its metabolites are genotoxic. The impact of exogenous hormones, such as oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy is of special interest. It has been shown that anti-estrogens (SERMs) such as tamoxifene, raloxifene and aromatase inhibitors reduce the incidence of breast cancer.

Item Type: Thesis (Bachelor's thesis)
Supervisor: Marijanović, Inga
Date: 2011
Number of Pages: 28
Subjects: NATURAL SCIENCES > Biology
Divisions: Faculty of Science > Department of Biology
Depositing User: Silvana Šehić
Date Deposited: 09 Oct 2014 10:53
Last Modified: 09 Oct 2014 10:53
URI: http://digre.pmf.unizg.hr/id/eprint/2982

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