Obesity related to bacteria

Šerić, Martina (2012) Obesity related to bacteria. Bachelor's thesis, Faculty of Science > Department of Biology.

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Metabolic syndrome is a group of related disorders that lead to the development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. It is related to obesity, physical inactivity and insulin resistance. Lately, it is considered that gut bacteria contribute to development of obesity and other aspects of metabolic syndrome. There are numerous bacteria in human distal gut that synthesize essential amino acids and vitamins, and contribute to degradation of otherwise indigestible polysaccharides. Composition of gut bacteria differs between humans. They are divided into three enterotypes named after the dominant genus: Bacteroides, Prevotella and Ruminococcus. Studies on mice and humans have shown that there are differences in abundance of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes between gut bacteria of obese and lean individuals. Obese individuals have less diverse gut bacterial species. They have more Firmicutes, but as they lose weight, abundance of Bacteroidetes increases. Host genotype affects gut bacterial composition, and their efficiency of extracting energy from food contributes to development of obesity. A different approach emphasizes the role of interaction between innate immune system and gut bacteria in development of obesity. Loss of TLR5, a receptor found on innate imunnity cells that recognizes bacterial flagellin, causes change of gut bacterial composition in mice. That leads to low-grade inflammation (the amount of proinflammatory cytokines in adipose tissue increases) and insulin receptor desensitization. That results in hyperphagia, which contributes to development of other metabolic syndrome symptoms. Obesity is directly caused by surplus of energy consumption over expenditure. However, studies show that interaction between host and his gut bacteria can affect the development of metabolic syndrome.

Item Type: Thesis (Bachelor's thesis)
Supervisor: Ivančić Baće, Ivana
Date: 2012
Number of Pages: 14
Subjects: NATURAL SCIENCES > Biology
Divisions: Faculty of Science > Department of Biology
Depositing User: Silvana Šehić
Date Deposited: 14 Oct 2014 09:38
Last Modified: 14 Oct 2014 09:38
URI: http://digre.pmf.unizg.hr/id/eprint/3035

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