Ecological speciation factors

Dejanović, Ema (2013) Ecological speciation factors. Bachelor's thesis, Faculty of Science > Department of Biology.

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In the process of transformation of one species to another, ecological speciation (which is defined as a process with which the barriers in the gene flow evolve inbetween generations), as a result of ecologically based divergent selection between evironments, has been intensively researched in the last 15-20 years. Numerous factors, as are the origins of natural divergent selection, the form of reproductive isolation and the genetic mehanism which binds divergent selection with reproductive isolation, are in the center of those researches, which are getting more numerous every day. Several factors are for now well established. We know that the process occurs in nature, we understand the aspects of each of the three main factors of ecological speciation. Various forms of reproductive isolation reveal that most evolve as a result of divergent selection, including forms such as postmating and reproductive isolation, which are not inherently ecological. It is also known that many forms can operate simultaneously during ecological speciation, and there are well-known examples of speciation in sympatry, parapatry and allopatry. Ecological speciation can occur within any geographical distribution of the population, and also due to multiple geographic factors, where some divergence appears in allopatry, and some in the form of gene flow. There is evidence that divergence occurs most easily when the speed (frequency) of gene flow is low. The consequence of all this is biodiversity that explains how ecological processes influence the evolution, and how evolution affects ecology. Despite this, little is known about the complexity of the genomic basis of ecological speciation. Our understanding of the influence of ecological speciation, integrated with molecluar, populational and quantitative genetics gives us, for now, just a small insight in the complexity of natural processes.

Item Type: Thesis (Bachelor's thesis)
Supervisor: Kalafatić, Mirjana
Date: 2013
Number of Pages: 14
Subjects: NATURAL SCIENCES > Biology
Divisions: Faculty of Science > Department of Biology
Depositing User: Silvana Šehić
Date Deposited: 14 Oct 2014 11:20
Last Modified: 14 Oct 2014 11:20

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