Epigenetics silencing of X chromosome

Tremski, Mihaela (2012) Epigenetics silencing of X chromosome. Bachelor's thesis, Faculty of Science > Department of Biology.

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Abstract

Chromosomal differences between the sexes lead to an imbalance of gene products between males (XY) and females (XX). Dosage compensation mechanisms evolved in mammals in order to establish a balance of gene products of X chromosome in the two sexes. There are two model of X inactivation – random and imprinted X inactivation. The process of epigenetic silencing occurs through the initiation, expansion and maintenance of the inactive X chromosome state. During the initiation process three steps are important: counting, choice of X chromosome to be inactivated and expression of Xic gene in X-chromosome to be inactivate. Xist RNA molecule covers the whole X-chromosome. Then, several layers of epigenetic modifications, specific for inactivated X-chromosome, occur subsequently: establishment of histon modifications associated with repressive chromatin state, incorporation of histone variant macroH2A, and finaly DNA methylation, an epigenetic event that maintain heterochromatic state. In this short review I present epigenetic processes associated with X chromosome silencing process. Many mechanisms are yet to be elucidated, and further research is needed in this direction.

Item Type: Thesis (Bachelor's thesis)
Supervisor: Zoldoš, Vlatka
Date: 2012
Number of Pages: 13
Subjects: NATURAL SCIENCES > Biology
Divisions: Faculty of Science > Department of Biology
Depositing User: Silvana Šehić
Date Deposited: 20 Oct 2014 11:18
Last Modified: 20 Oct 2014 11:18
URI: http://digre.pmf.unizg.hr/id/eprint/3102

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