Insulin and diabetes

Pavlinec, Željko (2012) Insulin and diabetes. Bachelor's thesis, Faculty of Science > Department of Biology.

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In this work, a short review of hormone insulin metabolism, and its most widespread and most famous disorder diabetes, has been presented. β-cells in Langerhans islets of the pancreas produce insulin, and excrete it as response to an increased level of blood glucose. Its function is to decrease the blood glucose level by activating biosynthetic and inhibiting catabolic processes. Insulin can act only on cells with a specific insulin receptor protein on their plasma membrane. Binding of insulin to specific receptors increases the rate of glucose transport through the membrane into the cells. There are two main forms of diabetes with different causes. Type I diabetes mellitus, also known as insulin-dependent diabetes, is an autoimmune disorder, in which the immune system mounts an attack on the cells of the pancreas. This disorder usually occurs suddenly during childhood, destroying the organism’s ability to produce insulin. Treatment consists of insulin injections, which are usually taken several times per day. More than 90% of diabetics are type II which is characterized by reduced responsiveness in target cells due to a change in insulin receptors. It usually occurs after the age 30, becoming more likely with increasing age, and both heredity and obesity are major factors in its development. Therefore many control their blood glucose solely by exercise and proper diet, although helpful drugs are also available.

Item Type: Thesis (Bachelor's thesis)
Supervisor: Benković, Vesna
Date: 2012
Number of Pages: 13
Subjects: NATURAL SCIENCES > Biology
Divisions: Faculty of Science > Department of Biology
Depositing User: Silvana Šehić
Date Deposited: 20 Oct 2014 12:14
Last Modified: 20 Oct 2014 12:14

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