Evolution, trial and error: neandertals

Bajo, Nikolina (2010) Evolution, trial and error: neandertals. Bachelor's thesis, Faculty of Science > Department of Biology.

[img] PDF
Restricted to Registered users only
Language: Croatian

Download (196kB) | Request a copy

Abstract

The appereance of Homo sapiens was neither sudden in time nor well defined in space. The change began with the people known as archaic sapiens who represented transitional forms that appeared almost impercepitibly in the Old World and gradually developed more modern aspects. The resident Homo erectus populations began to slowly change into archaic sapiens and, eventualy in Europe, into the Neandertals. The transition of the Neandertals in Europe from archaic sapiens was also not an obvious one, in part becouse of the paucity of fossils. By 75,000 years ago, howewer, they were recognizably distinct though they would not be discovered by modern humans until the nineteenth century. Neandertal population of Europe was considered distinct from other populations elsewhere. Boule described these Neandertals, unfortunately using the skeleton of one individual suffering from variety of ailments, and produced a misconection of these people until relatively recent studies provided a morerealistic view. Until 1921, all Neandertals were thought to be European. At that time, a Neandertaloid skull was found in Zambia and experts began to suspect that Neandertals might not be restricted to Europe. A major problem arose, however, when examples tipical of the European specimens found in the Middle East also were seen to have some more modern anatomic features. This led to the categorization of tipical European Neandertals as Classic specimens, and those elsewhere with more modern aspects as Progressive. With such information in hand, scientists reexaminaed many of the problematic Europeen Neandertals. Though Piltdown man was discovered to be a hoax, others were assigned to archaic sapiens. These, then, were part of the transition population that gradually evolved from H. Erectus to H. Sapiens. Culturally, the Neandertals were more advanced than H.erectus. Stone tools that they produced, Mousterian tools, exhibited improvements over the Acheulian tools of H. Erectus. With such tools most aspects of their lives become better. Neandertal behaviors also were advanced over those of H.erectus. Burials were a common practice and hundreds of speciments have been recovered from graves. Various objects included with the burials offer insights into Neandertal lifestyles. Certain objects from burials also demonstrate the existence of ceremonies, including burial with great honor. Yet the interpretation of murder and cannibalism from the evidence at many sites reflects the darker side of human nature. Today we continue the trend toward modernization. The only anomaly in this pattern is the appearance of the Classic Neandertals aftert the Progressiv ones. Even so we accept Neandertals as members of our own species but classify them as subspecies, Homo sapiens neanderthalensis. Modern men has evolved from Cromanions, while neandertalensis phenomenon is considered to be the result of certain errors.

Item Type: Thesis (Bachelor's thesis)
Supervisor: Kalafatić, Mirjana
Date: 2010
Number of Pages: 15
Subjects: NATURAL SCIENCES > Biology
Divisions: Faculty of Science > Department of Biology
Depositing User: Silvana Šehić
Date Deposited: 04 Dec 2014 10:53
Last Modified: 04 Dec 2014 10:53
URI: http://digre.pmf.unizg.hr/id/eprint/3446

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item