Transposable genetic elements and antibiotic resistance in bacterias

Martinić, Marina (2009) Transposable genetic elements and antibiotic resistance in bacterias. Bachelor's thesis, Faculty of Science > Department of Biology.

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Abstract

Variability is the key of evolutionary changes. Mutation is a basic source of variation within prokaryotic species, but mutations are rare, and usually only a single gene changes at one time, so horizontal gene transfer and transposable genetic elements (TGE, jumping genes) are the main factors in evolution of bacterial organisms. My goal was to study all the types of TGE in bacterial organisms, determine their role in creation of resistant forms, and discuss potential solutions for this problem. We can identify three sorts of TGE: transposons and two sorts of retrotransposons. In prokaryotic organisms, only DNA transposons appear, and we can again, considering their complexity, divide them into three main groups: Insertion sequences (IS), composite transposons and complex transposons. Insertion sequences carry only genes that code for protein transposase, while combined and complex transposons carry multiple genes, for instance: antimicrobial resistance genes. There are two modes of transposition: (1) direct transposition by cut-and-paste mechanism and (2) replicative transposition in which the original transposon remains in its site, and a copy is inserted at a target site. Thus, transposons can move from bacterial chromosome to plasmid (and wise versa), between plasmids, and during that, cause inversion, insertion and deletion, or create multiple copies of genes, which is today considered to be the cause for R-plasmid creation. In order to deal with challenges of new antimicrobial resistances, we must fully understand and continue to research mechanisms of their appearance, and function of every gene included in the evolution of R-forms.

Item Type: Thesis (Bachelor's thesis)
Supervisor: Kalafatić, Mirjana
Date: 2009
Number of Pages: 15
Subjects: NATURAL SCIENCES > Biology
Divisions: Faculty of Science > Department of Biology
Depositing User: Silvana Šehić
Date Deposited: 15 Dec 2014 12:00
Last Modified: 15 Dec 2014 12:00
URI: http://digre.pmf.unizg.hr/id/eprint/3523

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