ALMA Imaging of Gas and Dust in a Galaxy Protocluster at Redshift 5.3: [C II] Emission in "Typical" Galaxies and Dusty Starbursts ≈ 1 Billion Years after the Big Bang

Riechers, Dominik A. and Carilli, Christopher L. and Capak, Peter L. and Scoville, Nicholas Z. and Smolčić, Vernesa and Schinnerer, Eva and Yun, Min and Cox, Pierre and Bertoldi, Frank and Karim, Alexander and Yan, Lin (2014) ALMA Imaging of Gas and Dust in a Galaxy Protocluster at Redshift 5.3: [C II] Emission in "Typical" Galaxies and Dusty Starbursts ≈ 1 Billion Years after the Big Bang. Astrophysical Journal, 796 (2). Art. No. 84. ISSN 0004-637X

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Abstract

We report interferometric imaging of [C II](^2 P_(3/2)→^2 P_(1/2)) and OH(^2Π_(1/2)J = 3/2→1/2) emission toward the center of the galaxy protocluster associated with the z = 5.3 submillimeter galaxy (SMG) AzTEC-3, using the Atacama Large (sub)Millimeter Array (ALMA). We detect strong [C II], OH, and rest-frame 157.7 μm continuum emission toward the SMG. The [C II](^2 P_(3/2)→^2 P_(1/2)) emission is distributed over a scale of 3.9 kpc, implying a dynamical mass of 9.7 × 10^(10) M_☉, and a star formation rate (SFR) surface density of Σ_(SFR) = 530 M_☉ yr^(–1) kpc^(–2). This suggests that AzTEC-3 forms stars at Σ^(SFR) approaching the Eddington limit for radiation pressure supported disks. We find that the OH emission is slightly blueshifted relative to the [C II] line, which may indicate a molecular outflow associated with the peak phase of the starburst. We also detect and dynamically resolve [C II](^2 P_(3/2)→^2 P_(1/2)) emission over a scale of 7.5 kpc toward a triplet of Lyman-break galaxies with moderate UV-based SFRs in the protocluster at ~95 kpc projected distance from the SMG. These galaxies are not detected in the continuum, suggesting far-infrared SFRs of <18-54 M_☉ yr^(–1), consistent with a UV-based estimate of 22 M_☉ yr^(–1). The spectral energy distribution of these galaxies is inconsistent with nearby spiral and starburst galaxies, but resembles those of dwarf galaxies. This is consistent with expectations for young starbursts without significant older stellar populations. This suggests that these galaxies are significantly metal-enriched, but not heavily dust-obscured, "normal" star-forming galaxies at z > 5, showing that ALMA can detect the interstellar medium in "typical" galaxies in the very early universe.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: cosmology: observations; galaxies: active; galaxies: formation; galaxies: high-redshift; galaxies: starburst; radio lines: galaxies
Date: 2014
Subjects: NATURAL SCIENCES > Physics > Astronomy and Astrophysics
Additional Information: © 2014 American Astronomical Society. Received 2014 April 28; accepted 2014 October 15; published 2014 November 10.
Divisions: Faculty of Science > Department of Physics
Publisher: IOP Publishing
Depositing User: Vernesa Smolčić
Date Deposited: 21 Apr 2015 14:58
Last Modified: 21 Apr 2015 14:59
URI: http://digre.pmf.unizg.hr/id/eprint/3847

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