Kosor, Mate (2014) Static model of stent based on the model of nonlinear hyperelastic rod. Doctoral thesis, Faculty of Science > Department of Mathematics.

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Abstract
Classical elasticity Even though the current bio engineering literature models stent exclusively as a single 3D elastic body, we approach stent modeling by simulating slender stent struts as 1D nonlinear rods. Simulating slender stent struts using 3D approaches (3D Finite Elements) is computationally very expensive and time consuming. This makes testing of a large number of stents for optimal stent design computationally prohibitive, and often times produces simulation results with poor accuracy. This is where our approach could prove advantageous: it could speed up the computation by the order of magnitude while keeping the accuracy of results, even when deformations are large. The approach has been applied in Tambača et al. (2010) to model equilibrium deformation within the scope of the linearized elasticity. We are not aware of any research related to the 1D stent modelling using 1D nonlinear rod models. Thus this work is original indeed. Main results Nonlinear 1D stent models are based on the use of 1D model for struts plus junction conditions on vertices. We take the 1D nonlinear bendingtorsion model for curved rods that was rigorously derived from nonlinear threedimensional elasticity in Scardia (2006). This nonlinear curved rod model is derived by Γ–convergence techniques applied to the elastic energy and for the middle curve of the undeformed curved rod parameterized by a C^2 function. This is what we do: 1. generalize formulation of the 1D model of elastic curved rods to include Lipschitz middle curves, 2. prove existence of a solution of the boundary value problem for the generalized formulation of the nonlinear curved rod model, 3. prove continuity (stability) of the model with respect to the geometry of the undeformed rod, 4. formulate the 1D model for general structure that consists of rods and prove the existence of the solution, 5. formulate the 1D model for stent and prove the existence of the solution, 6. prove continuity (stability) of the stent model with respect to the geometry of the stent, 7. investigate the loads that can be replicated in an experiment and used in this stent model. Junction of two curves is not necessarily smooth. Complex junctions app ear naturally in stents: for example where three or more rods join together. Thus, in order to build a stent model, one first needs to reformulate the 1D model to be well defined for the Lipschitz curved rods. Analysis of the properties of the rod model serves as the good introduction in analysis of the more complex stent models. The results of this analysis also have their own merit. Continuity with respect to undeformed geometry is important feature of the model. It provides also a justification for our generalized model in case of less regular middle curve geometries mentioned above. Similar analysis for the linear Naghdi shell model for shells with little regularity is performed in Blouza, A. Le Dret (2001). This continuity is done using curves of the same and of different lengths. Obtained continuity property is important in order to simplify numerical approximation of the model. Formulation of the stent model is the starting point for the stent modeling. From the mathematical point of view the existence of the solution is important in order to have well posed problem. Continuity of the stent model with respect to the geometry is important from several points of view. It can be viewed as a stability result which is important in any kind of modeling. It also can be used to approximate the rod geometry by piecewise linear geometry which is easier to discretize. Methodology The formulation of this model is by minimization of the total energy functional on a suitably chosen set of admissible deformations. For this part of the project we will apply direct methods of the calculus of variations. The formulation of the boundary value problem of the nonlinear bendingtorsion rod model for specific loads can be described as a minimization problem for R ∈ W^{1,2}(0, l; SO(3)) on a suitably chosen set of functions including boundary conditions. The columns of R are the tangent, normal and binormal, i.e., the Frenet frame, to the rod’s deformed middle curve. As R(s) ∈ SO(3) the rod is inextensible and unshearable. The strain in the model from Scardia (2006) is given as the difference R^T.R˙ − Q^T.Q˙ , where the columns of Q form the Frenet frame of the undeformed geometry. This formulation requires at least Q ∈ W^{1,2}(0, l; SO(3)). However, the rotation R can be viewed as a rotation P applied at the undeformed geometry, i.e., R(s) = P(s).Q(s), s ∈ [0, l]. A simple calculation shows that the boundary value problems can be easily reformulated in terms of the ’transformation rotation’ P. Such formulations have no derivatives on Q and the models are now well formulated for P ∈ W^{1,2}(0, l; SO(3)) and any measurable Q with values in SO(3) almost everywhere, i.e., Q ∈ L^1(0, l; SO(3)). This implies that the new formulation includes Lipschitz middle curves. For example, the new formulation is well defined for undeformed geometries with corners. This is in agreement with the onedimensional model of junction of rods Tambača & Velčić (2012). As a consequence of general theory, Γlimit functional is lower semicontinuous and if it is bounded from below on a compact set it attains minima on the set. However, in Scardia (2006) no loads and boundary conditions are prescribed and additionally, as mentioned above, we have reformulated the model. We will prove the existence of the boundary value problem of the new formulation of the model by classical direct methods of calculus of variations. In the case of the boundary value problem for rods clamped at both ends the most difficult part, due to the inextensibility of the rod, is to show that the set of admissible functions is nonempty. Let us consider a sequence of geometries described by Q_n ∈ L^2 that converge to Q in L^2. For the model with both ends clamped we will show that the sequence of total energy functionals associated with Q_n, in the appropriate topology (in which minimizers converge), Γ–converges to the total energy functional associated with Q, in case Q is somewhat special. As a consequence, limit points of a sequence of any minimizer of energy for the geometry Q_n are minimizers of the energy for the limit geometry Q. To prove this we build a complex result about approximation of the deformed geometry with precise estimates. In the case of rod clamped at only one end the situation is more simple as no special geometry result is necessary. The key step in construction of strongly convergent approximation sequence for use in the lim sup inequality of the Γconvergence is based on the following result: for undeformed geometry Q, deformation rotation P, two endpoints v_0, v_1 of the curve given by P.Q we get that for all Q^˜ , v^˜_0, v^˜_1 such that ‖ Q – Q^˜ ‖ , ‖ v^˜_0 – v_0‖ , ‖ v^˜_1 – v_1‖ are small enough there is P^˜ with the same values at ends as P, such that P^˜. Q^˜ connects v^˜_0 and v^˜_1 and furthermore which is close enough to P in W^{1,2}. We prove it using the inverse function theorem with precise estimates, see Xinghua (1999). Finally, we use nonlinear bendingtorsion curved rod model to model stent struts and more genereal structures. Junction conditions at vertices are given similarly as in the linear case by: continuity of the displacement of the middle curve of the struts joining in the vertex and continuity of the rotation of the crosssection of the struts joining in the vertex (this means that deformation rotation is well defined for vertices). Nonemptyness of the admissible function set is trivial as we suppose that the stent is already built and the reference position satisfies the junction conditions. Then the existence result follows using classical methods of calculus of variations. We obtain the continuity of the stent model with respect to geometry by using Γ–convergence of the total energy functional, see e.g. Braides (2002) for details on Γ–convergence. The most delicate limsup result is obtained based on the geometrical approximation lemma stated earlier for one rod, and some delicate analysis. One hard case of continuity result is solved by introducing the notion of equivalence between stents.
Item Type:  Thesis (Doctoral thesis) 

Keywords:  stent, curved rod, bendingtorsion model, nonlinear elasticity, stability 
Supervisor:  Tambača, Josip 
Date:  2014 
Number of Pages:  119 
Subjects:  NATURAL SCIENCES > Mathematics > Applied Mathematics and Mathematic Modeling 
Divisions:  Faculty of Science > Department of Mathematics 
Depositing User:  Iva Prah 
Date Deposited:  27 Apr 2015 12:16 
Last Modified:  08 May 2015 09:59 
URI:  http://digre.pmf.unizg.hr/id/eprint/3881 
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