DNA transposons in the human genome

Jelić Matošević, Zoe (2016) DNA transposons in the human genome. Bachelor's thesis, Faculty of Science > Department of Biology.

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Abstract

Transposons make up 3% of the human genome, but they have not been active for the past 37 million years. Their activity has declined steadily throughout the primate evolution, but a surge in their activity can be observed right before the divergence of prosimians, and later, before the divergence of New world monkeys. Although the transposons themselves are not active in the human genome any more, many genes made out of their domesticated sequences are functional. The best known example are the Rag1/Rag2 genes, essential for adaptive immunity. Transposase recognizes the transposon's TIRs, and the mechanisms of excision vary between different groups. The precise excision of the piggyBac transposon make it a useful tool for mutagenesis and an important vector for genomic engineering and gene therapy. Transposon multiplication is cell cycle-dependent. It is based on the repair of the donor sequence with a homologous template sequence that still contains the transposon. The spread of transposons through the genome is also limited by the host's defense mechanisms as well as the accumulation of mutations within the transposon. According to the life-cycle model, the inactivation of a class II transposable element is therefore inevitable, and so the proliferation of these elements depends upon the horizontal transfer.

Item Type: Thesis (Bachelor's thesis)
Supervisor: Plohl, Miroslav
Co-supervisor: Malenica, Nenad
Date: 2016
Number of Pages: 24
Subjects: NATURAL SCIENCES > Biology
Divisions: Faculty of Science > Department of Biology
Depositing User: Grozdana Sirotic
Date Deposited: 14 Nov 2016 11:34
Last Modified: 14 Nov 2016 11:34
URI: http://digre.pmf.unizg.hr/id/eprint/5290

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