Brain stem tumors in children

Ravlić, Tea (2014) Brain stem tumors in children. Diploma thesis, Faculty of Science > Department of Biology.

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Abstract

Primary tumors of the brain and spinal cord make up about 20% of all tumors in children and are the second most common types of pediatric neoplasia after hematology. In children between two and seven years of age the most common types of tumors are tumors of the posterior cranial fossa, including the brainstem tumors. Brain stem tumors are defined primarily due to its anatomic localization, rather than the grade of histological phenotype. Astrocytomas and glioblastomas make up about 50% of all neoplasms while medulloblastomas, ependymomas, kraniofaringeomi, oligodendrogliomas, and germ cell tumors are the rarest. Although in the area of the brainstem can occur all histopathological types of tumors, the occurrence in this region, the typical neuroradiological images and expressed clinical symptoms are more important prognostic factor than histopathological phenotype and degree of differentiation. Total prognosis for brainstem tumors in children is poor, average survival of affected children is 8-10 months. This study includes 10 children in age of 1-7 years with confirmed diagnosis of brain stem tumors by neuroradiology or patohistology in the Children's Hospital in Klaićeva and the Department of Pediatrics, KBC Zagreb who were treated in the period of 2008. - 2012.The primary goal of this study is to determine the objective response to conducted treatment and overall survival of patients. The goal of this study is to determine the toxicity after completion of treatment. All patients were treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Chemotherapy was conducted according to the HIT-GBM protocol or with temozolomide. Radiation therapy was conducted in the area of posterior fossa and the seat of the primary process with total dose of 54 Gy in 27 fractions. Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy was applied for maximum protection of healthy tissue. Objective response was monitored by clinical neurological examination and neuroradiological monitoring (MRI). Toxicity, primarily hematologic, was monitored by regular controls of hematopoietic and biochemical parameters. Despite advances in chemotherapy treatment and radiotherapy, the results of treatment of brain stem tumors are still poor and application of new therapeutic procedures is required.

Item Type: Thesis (Diploma thesis)
Keywords: brain stem tumors, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, survival, toxicity
Supervisor: Grah, Josip Joachim
Co-supervisor: Lacković Venturin, Gordana
Date: 2014
Number of Pages: 46
Subjects: BIOMEDICINE AND HEALTH CARE > Clinical Medical Sciences
Divisions: Faculty of Science > Department of Biology
Depositing User: Grozdana Sirotic
Date Deposited: 26 Mar 2014 13:21
Last Modified: 23 Sep 2014 10:00
URI: http://digre.pmf.unizg.hr/id/eprint/717

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