The influence of tourism os sustainable development of Zadar islands

Brkić-Vejmelka, Jadranka (2013) The influence of tourism os sustainable development of Zadar islands. Doctoral thesis, Faculty of Science > Department of Geography.

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Abstract

The subject of this thesis is the influence of tourism on contemporary phisiognomic, functional, demographic and socio-cultural changes as well as environmental changes of Zadar islands. These changes are discussed in context of concept, principles and goals of sustainable development. The goal of this thesis is contribution to scientific insight by which way and to what extent tourism is influencing development of Zadar islands. The goals of research were therefore: to determine the level of development of tourism, to determine links between tourism and island economy, demographics and demographic resources on Zadar islands, influence of tourism to environmental changes and the impact of tourism on functional and phisiognomic transformations of island settlements. The investigated areas are the islands of Zadar, which are one of the most attractive tourist areas in Zadar region. Zadar islands are mostly small, scattered and remote from continent, just two of them connected by bridge to the continent (Vir and Pag), and two interconnected (Ugljan and Pašman). Methodology of research covers statistical analisys of primary and secundary sources, field research with questionnare survey, photo documenting, inductive, deductive and comparative analisys, which enabled contextualisation of different sources of relevant areal data. The development of tourism on Zadar islands is one of the factors influencing to it's transformation, while dynamics and intensity was dependent on numerous of factors like traffic connections (with continent), development of other economies and demographic conditions. The period of strong tourism development of Zadar islands was during late 1960's, 1970's and 1980's. The main characteristic of islands' tourism is very short high season, domination of small private accommodation, domination of nautical, bathing tourism and weekend tourism. Seasonality in all types of tourism on Zadar islands shows that tourism is based primarily on favourable natural characteristics. Although tourists' arrivals and overnights have increased in the last decade, significant differences have been observed between large and small islands. The influence of tourism on sustainability of Zadar islands are indicated by factors like environmental changes, phisiognomical, functional, demographical and sociocultural changes. Changes in environment are related primarily to changes in island landscape. Islands' coast has become the most attractive area. The development of tourism has increased the need for protection of sea shore and littoral, because they are exposed to direct devastation, especially during the high season. The most attractive bays on Zadar islands are protected by law, bearing the status of Park of nature (like bay of Telašćica) or the conservation area (bay of Sakarun od Dugi otok Island, bay of Zrće on island of Pag). Some parts of Zadar archipelago have the legal status of the environmentally sensitive areas (aquatorium between island of Silba and Silba reefs, island of Škarda area, NW area of Dugi otok Island). A number of forrests are also protected (Dubrava Hanzine on Pag island) as well as swamp areas (Veliko and Malo blato, Kolan blato). Other areas planned for protection (bay of Brbišćica on Dugi otok Island and area Crnika on Pag island, as special reservation, Silba reefs for conservation areas) should contribute not only to protection of the areas but also to present tourist attractions. The development of tourism has influenced on phisiognomic changes of islands’ settlements. One of the biggest changes was closing to the coast and there are only a few settlements that have not moved yet. Besides, new stuctures like hotels, appartments, marinas, second homes, sport facilities etc. have been built. Position, concentration and new elements in the islands’ areas as well as its structure has a long term influence on ecological and aesthetic value of environment. One of the biggest outcome has been made by large number of second homes. Zadar islands have the biggest number of second homes among all Croatian archipelagos. That number is even bigger than the number of permanent residences. While the number of permanent residences in the period between 1971. and 2001. has been increased, the number of second homes has multiplied. On some islands they have created completely new settlements. Because of absence of economicaly and functionaly strong islands' settlements, the most of them are strongly oriented to the mainland and Zadar. Functional dependence on Zadar is emphasized by islands dispersity, bad demographic conditions and undeveloped economy. The development of tourism influenced on their administrative organisation. On the island of Pag it influenced not only on prevailing communities, town of Pag and town of Novalja, but also on establishing new one, Kolan and Povljana. Beside tourism, development of food industry (salt and cheese) and cattle-breeding have brought prosperity. On the island of Ugljan tourism influenced the development of Kukljica community and on island of Pašman it influenced the forming Tkon community. Tourism influenced the economy structure on all Zadar islands so the tertiary activities (trade business, tourism, catering) dominate, and some secondary became stronger (construction industry). In the second half of 20th century tourism became important factor of islands development but demographic problems have remained. In the period between 1961. and 2001. total number of inhabitants on the most of Zadar islands decreased. The biggest decrease happened in the period 1971.-1981. In the last census period, 2001.-2011., total number of Zadar islands inhabitants increased. The growth of inhabitants number was on the bigger islands, island of Pag and island of Vir, while decreasing is still on some of the smallest islands (Premuda, Zverinac, Sestrunj, Ist, Olib). Transportation (with the mainland and between islands) is one of the biggest issues for the islands inhabitants and its economy. In spite of modernisation, problems are still there especially for the smallest and more distant islands. The increase of passengers and goods during the high season influenced on improving conditions of marine transportation. Many islands harbours were reconstructed and new connections with catamarans and ferry boats were established. Although the high season influence on traffic frequency and modernisation of fleet, improvements are made mostly for bigger islands. As transportation intensity is very important for islands inhabitants' every day life and islands economy, the quality of transport service is one of the most important issue. By empirical investigation on islands Silba, Vir and Ugljan it was determined that, irrelevant on size, isolation and development state of the island, tourism is seen as important factor of quality of life, which is a goal of sustainable development. The empirical research was made to throw light on the perceptions of locals about the influence of tourism on islands sustainable development and also on perceptions of tourists on those islands. Local inhabitants see constant demographic problems as a result of negative economic trends but also as a dicreasing of living conditions. The research among tourists on those islands show that the best values of islands are natural beauties (beaches, bays), low intensity of local traffic and good relations with local inhabitants. The most significant is shortage of different leisure amenities, home-made products and authentic characteristics. Tourism has developed on many of Zadar islands as prevailing economic activity. Contemporary islands' problems are reflected in long lasting processes of depopulation, economy regression and spatial and social isolation. In such conditions tourism is acting as nucleus to remaining economic activities and as important socializing agent contributing inclusion of islands to contemporary trends in modern economy. The impact of tourism to ecology is twofold: on the islands, specially on coast line where touristic activities are most intensive, it induced some negative processes (excessive building, preassure to comunity resources, waste menagement etc.); on the other hand in many communities it provoked ecological awareness and contributed to better presentation and evaluation of traditional, cultural and natural herritage.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral thesis)
Keywords: turizam, održivi razvoj, Zadarski otoci, turistički razvoj
Supervisor: Curić, Zoran
Date: 2013
Number of Pages: 335
Subjects: NATURAL SCIENCES > Geography
Divisions: Faculty of Science > Department of Geography
Depositing User: Inja Cahun
Date Deposited: 31 Mar 2014 08:13
Last Modified: 07 Jun 2016 11:47
URI: http://digre.pmf.unizg.hr/id/eprint/731

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